Treatments for gum disease that don’t involve surgery include:

Professional dental cleaning.
During a typical checkup your dentist or dental hygienist will remove the plaque and tartar (plaque that builds up and hardens on the tooth surface and can only be removed with professional cleaning) from above and below the gum line of all teeth. If you have some signs of gum disease, your dentist may recommend professional dental cleaning more than twice-a-year.

Scaling and root planning.
This is a deep-cleaning, nonsurgical procedure, done under a local anesthetic, whereby plaque and tartar from above and below the gum line are scraped away (scaling) and rough spots on the tooth root are made smooth (planing). Smoothing the rough spots removes bacteria and provides a clean surface for the gums to reattach to the teeth. Scaling and root planing is done if your dentist or periodontist determines that you have plaque and calculus (hardened plaque, also called tartar) under the gums that needs to be removed.

Types of periodontal diseases

There are many types of periodontal diseases. People of all ages can be affected, from children to seniors.
Gingivitis is the mildest form of periodontal disease. It causes the gums to become red and swollen and to bleed easily. There is usually little or no discomfort at this stage. Gingivitis can be reversed with treatment in the dental office and good oral care at home.

Chronic Periodontitis is a form of periodontal disease that results in swelling and redness in the tissues around the teeth. Patients suffer loss of tissue and bone that may become more severe over time. In chronic periodontitis, pockets form and/or gum tissue pulls back. This is the most common form of periodontitis in adults but can occur at any age. It usually gets worse slowly, but there can be periods of rapid progression.
Aggressive Periodontitis is a highly destructive form of periodontal disease that occurs in patients who are otherwise healthy. Common features include rapid loss of tissue and bone. This disease may occur in some areas of the mouth, or in the entire mouth.

Periodontitis as a Manifestation of Systemic Diseases is a form of periodontitis that is the result of a specific disease or disorder. Patients who have certain blood diseases or genetic disorders frequently show signs of periodontal disease.

Necrotizing Periodontal Diseases result in the death (or necrosis) of tissues surrounding the tooth and connecting bone. This most commonly comes with pain, bleeding, and a foul odor. These infections, in part, are caused by stress, tobacco use, malnutrition and HIV infection.